The Importance of CAPAC System for Marine Environment



Corrosion poses one of the biggest problems that marine engineering need to solve. The problem stems from the exposure of metals that come in contact with the salt in the water. It weakens the exposed parts of boats. Although some metals corrode slower than others, repairs are imminent and costly. This is where a cathodic protection system becomes useful.

Also called a CAPAC, it provides a cathodic protection system on active mode. It provides a means of protection for all types of materials that may suffer from corrosion caused by regular contact with the salt content of sea water.  Most seafaring boats and vehicles depend on it for better protection. It is a kind of protection that involves a simple procedure that separates active from passive cathodic protection.


Active Cathodic Protection

Active Cathodic Protection System is run with direct current.  The current can adjust itself to anything that is massive in size. It is this feature that separates Active from Passive Cathodic Protection. The direct current is forcefully run through the whole hull of a boat or ship protecting all metals that it comes into contact with.  The current provides the whole hull with equal amounts of electricity that prevents corrosion from happening.

On larger ships, the current must be on a uniform level so that it can withstand constant changes in the water.  Everything must be considered and regulated because even a slight change in water temperature may affect the protection system. However if the running current is regulated, the hull can withstand any change in the water. A CAPAC system ably does this with its cathodic protection measures.


These are measures that help regulate the protection system and eliminate the chances of corrosion settling in. It is one of the ways in which CAPAC helps protect the marine environment. It is worth noting that marine corrosion has a big effect on marine industries.

Introduction to Ballast Water Management Systems




Ballast water is water taken in by ships to help balance the vessel. Ships usually load ballast water in one coastal area and expel them in another. This discharge not only transfers water but also living organisms that bring harm to the ecosystem they are dumped in.

Treating ballast water is, therefore, crucial to protecting and preserving the environment. The Ballast Water Management Convention of 2004 is only one of the safeguards instituted to achieve this goal. However, it is still currently not in full effect, because of the lack of representation—only 34.87% of the world’s tonnage so far. For full implementation, 35% should accede to the Convention.

In order to treat ballast water, ships must be equipped with a ballast water management system (BWMS); this system should also meet the standard set in the Convention. BWMSs that meet Convention standards are issued a License. Ship owners seeking to install a BWMS in their ships should fit their ships with a BWMS that is licensed by the IMO.


Manufacturers seeking licenses for their products need to send detailed plans for the design of the BWMS. After this, the BWMS would be tested and granted a license, when it passes. Below are some guidelines for approving BWMS taken from the IMO’s G8:


1)The BWMS should not contain substances that would make the water more harmful after treatment.

2)All working parts of the BWMS must be easily accessed to facilitate maintenance.

3)The equipment for treating the water should be suitable to the environment in ships.

4)An adequate control system should be provided to expedite the treatment of ballast water.

5)The control system should automatically monitor treatment dosages and intensities.

For the full list of guidelines and the all its details, read the IMO’s “GUIDELINES FOR APPROVAL OF BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (G8).”

Do your part in protecting the environment. Treat your ballast water to keep the ecosystem safe from harm!


Office Bonding Tips For Everyone


You should start working on group activities in Singapore when you are working in a large office. You will get instant results from the things that you plan because they will push your team to learn how to do things together, and they will show you how to get instant results for the things that you need to get done. You can try out a lot of different things, and then you can see which ones really do work the best for you. There are a lot of things that can be done to change the way your office works, and you will see the changes as soon as you get down to what you want to do.

You can schedule everything for your office so that people show up the same times to get this training. They will learn a lot about how they work together, and the people in the office can get to know each other so that they can start being more productive. You will see how everyone does what they do, and you will have a very good idea of how you will manage all the work that needs to be done.


You need to start pairing people up so that they can get to know each other, and you will start seeing natural teams develop. You can turn your large team into a bunch of small groups who are all trained to work together, and then they will learn a lot about how you are supposed to get the work done that is assigned to you. You will have a chance to teach the team exactly what needs to be done, and then you will not have to worry about how you will get everything done. You can keep pointing back to the training to say that this is how you want to do things, and then you will have every chance to make a change in the office that really helps.


Some of your people will go off to use that same information to get better results in their own jobs, and they will often go off to manage other offices. Someone who is trying to get much better results from their team needs to be willing to work together with the team without every a thought. That means that you start doing team building, and then you realize that you have all the time in the world to get things done.

Anyone who is trying to make the most of what they are doing at work should be able to have a way to learn everything in one shot. You can bring people into the office at any time, and then you can put them in these trainings that will get them ready to do anything that they need to do at any time. You have to make sure that you have done all that can be done to help your cause, and you also need to remember that you cannot get a single good result unless you have planned in advance.

Use of Cathodic Protection to Clean Underwater structures

cathodic protectionCathodic technology protection has wide usage over the decades as a system to regulate the weathering of metals surfaces by making them cathodes of electrochemical cells. The metal to be secure is linked using a technique of connecting the metal to an easily corroded metal ‘anode’. The anode, in this case acts as the sacrificial metal that now erodes and leaves the protected metal safe. The main application of this technology is in underwater structures. They include steel water, steel storage tanks, ship and boat hulls, oil well platform and castings. Galvanized steel is also a standard application zinc is used as the sacrificial coat of parts made from steel to protect them from rust. Underwater structures can be cleaned using this technology.


Cathodic Technology Protection Types

• Galvanic

A galvanic terminal is a part of metal that is a more vigorous metal and acts as a galvanic node in an application called passive Cathodic protection. The metal is then attached to the exterior of the metal that is to be protected on exposure to the electrolyte. The reason galvanic anodes are used is because they have a high negative electrode potential. To make the protection more efficient, the steel surface is polarized to an extent where the surface has a uniform potential. The protection layer will continue to be corroded and after that be replaced when completed. Many different shapes of the galvanic anodes are available in alloys like magnesium, zinc and aluminum.


• Impressed Current System

When using larger systems, the electrical resistivity is expected to be high and. Therefore, galvanic anodes will be minimal effectiveness will not be able to deliver enough current economically. In such a case, impressed current for cathodic protection is applicable. It mainly consists of anodes that are connected to a DC power source that will be connected to an AC power supply. Conventional anodes of this system include graphite, platinum, and mixed metal oxides. It is most effective when used in the complex underwater structures like ships.



• Pipelines

pipes are regularly protected using this technology. Impressed Cathodic technology of protection system more often used but at times galvanic protection system is used. Water pipes of a variety of materials are protected using the various alloys.




• Ships and Boats

Protection of ships is applied by use of galvanic anodes that are attached for impressed current cathodic technology for protection of bigger vessels. It is always easy to replace galvanic connections in ships since they can be removed from the sea for inspection.


• Marine

Marine cathodic protection covers many areas like offshore structures, harbors, and jetters. These different structures require different protection. It is more favorable to use galvanic nodes.


• Internal Cathodic Technology Protection

Tanks, pipelines and vessels that can be used in storing or transportation of liquids can be protected from corrosion by their interior surfaces using this technology.


Underwater structures made of metal are always at a high risk to corrode. Metals made of steel and iron are the most commonly used in building marine structures, and they are the most vulnerable to corrosion and rust that can make then wear and break. This technology helps protect the metal from corroding and keeps the metals clean.

A Brief Guide to Antifouling Systems for Boats


As any boat owner knows, some sort of antifouling system is necessary in order to keep the hull beneath the water line free of organisms that might otherwise grow there, a condition known as biofouling. These organisms create drag, and thus negatively impact both speed and fuel consumption. They can also grow in the water intakes, potentially getting into the pipes and creating corrosion and blockages.

Available Options

One way to prevent biofouling is to store the boat out of the water and/or periodically clean the hull. For many boat owners, however, this option is impractical. Modern-day antifouling consists either of some sort of coating on the hull or an internal system that may be either electrical or ultrasonic.

Hull coatings come in two varieties: paints in which a copper compound such as copper oxide is suspended along with some other biocides, or epoxy resins containing copper particles.

Antifouling Paints

The copper oxide in antifouling paint reacts with seawater to produce cuprous ions, which are toxic to seaweeds and barnacles. The presence of a layer of cuprous ions will usually prevent these organisms from attaching to the hull. Other biocides in the paint serve to keep the hull free of algae and slime. Because these biocides leech out of the paint, it becomes less effective over time. Consequently, the hull must be repainted with some frequency. Some paints must be reapplied every year, while others may last two or more seasons.

Semi-permanent Coatings

The semi-permanent coatings, which consist of epoxy resins containing copper particles, are both more expensive than paint and more durable. It may be necessary to wash them off and give them a light sanding once a year, but most of them will last for over 10 years. They work on the same principle as the paints do, but because the epoxy matrix is harder, they last longer.

Ultrasonic Systems

Ultrasonic antifouling systems use a wave generator coupled with external transducers mounted either to the sea chests or strainers. An electrical signal from the wave generator excites piezoelectric crystals in the transducers, creating a high-frequency ultrasonic barrier. This barrier both repels organisms and prevents them from adhering to the hull. These systems are expensive, there have been mixed reviews as to their efficacy, and most manufacturers still recommend putting a hard-coat antifouling resin on the hull in addition to the ultrasonic unit.


Ultrasonic antifouling systems


Electrical Systems

Electrical systems use a cathode fixed to a keel along with anodes attached above it to create sodium hydroxide, hydrogen, chlorine, and oxygen bubbles through the electrolysis of seawater. These then react to form sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, and hydrogen which serve to poison any organisms that may cause fouling. Like the ultrasonic systems, they require a power source to work.


All of these systems, with the exception of the ultrasonic systems, release chemicals into the water that may be problematic for marine life. Further research is ongoing, both in terms of the impact of current systems and the development of new ones.

Sources: boating.htm


Ultrasonic Antifouling

Cathodic Marine Engineering Pte Ltd

Cathodic Marine Engineering Pte Ltd, established in 1994, is a Cathodic Protection company which caters to the the Marine, Naval and Offshore industries.

Cathodic Marine Engineering Pte Ltd provides Sales and Technical services dealing with the design and applications of:

    • Cathodic Protection (Sacrificial Anode Systems, Impressed Current Systems)
    • Electrolytic Antifouling Systems (Marine Growth Prevention Systems)
    • Ballast Water Treatment Systems

Cathodic Marine Engineering Pte Ltd have an excellent system in place for competent , prompt and competitive service in design and sales implementation of New Systems and Retrofits in : –

  • New Build Projects
  • Marine, Offshore Vessels, Jack up Rigs & Platforms Maintenance & Supply
  • System Retrofitting
  • Technical Sales (Equipment & Spare Parts)
  • Systems Engineering
  • Cathodic Marine Engineering Pte Ltd provides the following products and services to the Marine and Offshore industries.
  • High quality Cathodic Protection material or Power System at very competitive prices.
  • Sacrificial anodes (Zinc and Aluminium)
  • Impressed Current Anodes (Mixed Metal Oxide, Platinized)
  • Antifouling replacement anodes (Aluminium, Cooper, Iron, Platinized).
  • We maintain a stock of Nippon Corrosion Enginering and Capac ICCP spares.
  • Our technical staff can design any Cathodic Protection system (utilizing either Sacrificial Anodes or Impressed Current) or Electrolytic Antifouling system.



  • Telephone: (65) 64662497
  • Address: 170 Upper Bukit Timah Road, #05-28 Singapore 588179
  • Email:
  • Website:

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